2021 Symposia

Early Processing of Foveal Vision

Organizers: Lisa Ostrin1, David Brainard2, Lynne Kiorpes3; 1University of Houston College of Optometry, 2University of Pennsylvania, 3New York University

This year’s biennial ARVO at VSS symposium focuses on early stages of visual processing at the fovea. Speakers will present recent work related to optical, vascular, and neural factors contributing to vision, as assessed with advanced imaging techniques. The work presented in this session encompasses clinical and translational research topics, and speakers will discuss normal and diseased conditions. More…

Feedforward & Recurrent Streams in Visual Perception

Organizers: Shaul Hochstein1, Merav Ahissar2; 1Life Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 2Psychology, Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Interactions of bottom-up and top-down mechanisms in visual perception are heatedly debated to this day. The aim of the proposed symposium is to review the history, progress, and prospects of our understanding of the roles of feedforward and recurrent processing streams. Where and how does top-down influence kick in? Is it off-line, as suggested by some deep-learning networks? is it an essential aspect governing bottom-up flow at every stage, as in predictive processing? We shall critically consider the continued endurance of these models, their meshing with current state-of-the-art theories and accumulating evidence, and, most importantly, the outlook for future understanding. More…

What we learn about the visual system by studying non-human primates: Past, present and future

Organizers: Rich Krauzlis1, Michele Basso2; 1National Eye Institute, 2Brain Research Institute, UCLA

Non-human primates (NHPs) are the premier animal model for understanding the brain circuits and neuronal properties that accomplish vision. This symposium will take a “look back” at what we have learned about vision over the past 20 years by studying NHPs, and also “look forward” to the emerging opportunities provided by new techniques and approaches. The 20th anniversary of VSS is the ideal occasion to present this overview of NHP research to the general VSS membership, with the broader goal of promoting increased dialogue and collaboration between NHP and non-NHP vision researchers. More…

What's new in visual development?

Organizers: Oliver Braddick1, Janette Atkinson2; 1University of Oxford, 2University College London

Since 2000, visual developmental science has advanced beyond defining how and when basic visual functions emerge during childhood. Advances in structural MRI, fMRI and near-infrared spectroscopy have identified localised visual brain networks even in early months of life, including networks identifying objects and faces. Newly refined eye tracking has examined how oculomotor function relates to the effects of visual experience underlying strabismus and amblyopia. New evidence has allowed us to model developing visuocognitive processes such as decision-making and attention. This symposium illustrates how such advances, ideas and challenges enhance understanding of visual development, including infants and children with developmental disorders. More…

Wait for it: 20 years of temporal orienting

Organizers: Nir Shalev1,2,3, Anna Christina (Kia) Nobre1,2,3; 1Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, 2Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, University of Oxford, 3Oxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford

Time is an essential dimension framing our behaviour. In considering adaptive behaviour in dynamic environments, it is essential to consider how our psychological and neural systems pick up on temporal regularities to prepare for events unfolding over time. The last two decades have witnessed a renaissance of interest in understanding how we orient attention in time to anticipate relevant moments. New experimental approaches have proliferated and demonstrated how we derive and utilise recurring temporal rhythms, associations, probabilities, and sequences to enhance perception. We bring together researchers from across the globe exploring the fourth dimension of selective attention with complementary approaches. More…

What has the past 20 years of neuroimaging taught us about human vision and where do we go from here?

Organizers: Susan Wardle1, Chris Baker1; 1National Institutes of Health

Over the past 20 years, neuroimaging methods have become increasingly popular for studying the neural mechanisms of vision in the human brain. To celebrate 20 years of VSS this symposium will focus on the contribution that brain imaging techniques have made to our field of vision science. The aim is to provide both a historical context and an overview of current trends for the role of neuroimaging in vision science. This will lead to informed discussion about what future directions will prove most fruitful for answering fundamental questions in vision science. More…